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Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India

Ruby Kumar; Manoj Kumar.

Abstract
Despite the fact that India has a long tradition of ophthalmic surgeries, her contribution in the field remains largely unrecognized by the world. Sushruta (1000-800 BC), the father of Indian surgery, lived much before Hippocrates (460-370 BC) and Galen (129-216 AD), and described various ophthalmic surgeries, including surgeries for trichiasis, distichiasis, and entropion, in his treatise Sushruta Samhita. Sushruta and subsequent authorities on the subject also advocated para-surgical procedures such as chemical and heat cautery apart from surgeries. Their surgical techniques were practised all over India for more than 3000 years. It is very likely that their surgical knowledge spread even beyond the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent and benefited the world at large including the Arab and Europe. Here we describe the techniques of surgical and para-surgical procedures for trichiasis, distichiasis, and entropion practiced in India until recent past before it was replaced by modern procedures at large.

Key words: Agni Karma ; Entropion; Kshara Karma; Pakshamakopa; Sushruta; Trichiasis


 
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Pubmed Style

Kumar R, Kumar M. Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. J Res Educ Indian Med. 2017; 23(2): 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444


Web Style

Kumar R, Kumar M. Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. http://www.jreim-ayushjournal.com/?mno=276890 [Access: February 20, 2018]. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kumar R, Kumar M. Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. J Res Educ Indian Med. 2017; 23(2): 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kumar R, Kumar M. Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. J Res Educ Indian Med. (2017), [cited February 20, 2018]; 23(2): 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



Harvard Style

Kumar, R. & Kumar, M. (2017) Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. J Res Educ Indian Med, 23 (2), 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



Turabian Style

Kumar, Ruby, and Manoj Kumar. 2017. Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Est.1982), 23 (2), 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



Chicago Style

Kumar, Ruby, and Manoj Kumar. "Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India." Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Est.1982) 23 (2017), 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kumar, Ruby, and Manoj Kumar. "Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India." Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Est.1982) 23.2 (2017), 109-112. Print. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kumar, R. & Kumar, M. (2017) Surgical and Para-surgical Techniques for Correction of Trichiasis and Entropion: Under-recognized Contribution of Ancient India. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Est.1982), 23 (2), 109-112. doi:10.5455/JREIM.82-1504368444



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The articles in Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Estt.1982) are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

        

 



The articles in Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Estt.1982) are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.